Shingles and chickenpox are severe side effects of the shingles vaccine. The live virus in the vaccine Zostavax® can potentially cause deadly infections or spread to other people from a contagious chickenpox-like skin rash.
Zostavax® is the only shingles vaccine on the market in the United States. It is a live attenuated vaccine made by Merck & Co. that contains a weakened varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox.
Over 90% of adults in the U.S. are infected with the varicella virus as a result of having chickenpox in childhood, and about 30% develop shingles (herpes zoster) when the virus re-activates in adulthood. Zostavax contains about 14X more virus than the chickenpox vaccine Varivax® for children.
The shingles vaccine is given as a shot (injection) of the deltoid muscle of the upper arm. It is approved for adults over 50 years old, but it is not recommended until age 60 by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) because protection only lasts a few years.
Yes. Shingles is a side effect of Zostavax that Merck & Co. added to the label at the request of the FDA in August 2014. The FDA also strengthened warnings about serious “infections and infestations” with the virus in the vaccine.
In Australia, safety officials have reported the death of sick patients who were given Zostavax and warned that it should not be given to patients with compromised immune systems due to the risk of death from serious infections with the vaccine virus.
About 1 in 3 people suffer injection suffer redness, soreness, swelling, or itching at the site of the injection. About 1 in 70 people experience a headache.
Some people who get the shingles vaccine develop a chickenpox-like rash near the place where they were vaccinated. This rash is potentially contagious and it should be covered to avoid transmission of the varicella zoster virus to young children, pregnant women, or people with weakened immune systems.
The most common side effects of the shingles vaccine include:
- Injection-site reactions (pain, redness, itching, swelling, warmth, bruising, hard lump, or warmth)
- Joint or muscle pain
- Skin rash (may be contagious)
- Allergic reactions
- Eye damage (necrotizing retinitis)
- Skin rash
- Pregnancy complications
- Transmission of varicella zoster virus to non-immune people
The following is a list of post-marketing adverse event reports associated with Zostavax, but it is unknown if they were caused by the shingles vaccine:
- Arthralgia (joint pain)
- Anaphylactic reactions
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Herpes zoster (vaccine strain)
- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Injection-site rash, hives
- Muscle aches (myalgia)
- Necrotizing retinitis (patients on immunosuppressive therapy)
- Shingles infection from vaccine virus